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Plato Grishin
Plato Grishin

Lead-acid Battery State Detection For Automotiv... [UPDATED]



The Model 1656 tester uses modern digital technology to obtain new levels of accuracy and fault detection compared to previous generation, analog battery element testers. Sporting an easy to read full color display and simple menu driven user interface, the 1656 represents a significant step forward in ease of use.




lead-acid battery state detection for automotiv...



Auto-Detect is a patent-pending intelligent battery detection system that automatically selects the correct charging profiles for both lead acid and lithium ion batteries. Standard on all WFCO Converters, Power Centers and MBAs.


Ditex battery tester due to its advanced testing technology, allows to easily, quickly and accurately test the healthy state of the battery, common fault of the vehicle starting system and charging system, which can help you to find the problem quickly and accurately. You can test all automotive lead acid batteries types, test battery voltage during cranking and access the alternator condition by measuring the charging voltage at idle speed.


  • All high frequency, digital charging technology

  • Fully automatic 5-stage performance charging

  • Dedicated battery charging, sensing and control per bank

  • Expanded LED charge status monitor

  • Wiring and battery fault detection

  • Auto-maintain energy saver mode

  • Up to 40 percent lighter

  • 100 percent Waterproof (IP67) and shock resistant for all fresh and saltwater applications

  • All models are pre-wired for easy installation

  • For all 12 volt flooded and AGM lead acid batteries

  • Built-in safety: reverse polarity, over-current, over-voltage, over-temperature and ignition protection. In-line fuses for maximum DC wire protection

  • 2 year warranty



If you find yourself charging a variety of battery types in all weather conditions, consider the TOPDON Tornado 30000. This car battery charger has modes for just about every type of battery, including lead-acid, WET, GEL, AGM, and lithium. It also has modes for 6.0-volt, 12.0-volt, and 24.0-volt batteries. This charger even has a special option for battery charging in low temperatures.


The TOPDON uses smart charging technology to detect the state of the battery to which it is attached. This helps prevent overcharging and allows you to easily use the device as a trickle charger. A series of lights indicates the approximate (0-, 25-, 50-, 75-, or 100-percent) charge remaining in the connected battery. Despite having so many different charging modes, this charger is very easy to use, even for non-mechanics.


To charge a sealed lead acid battery, a DC voltage between 2.30 volts per cell (float) and 2.45 volts per cell (fast) is applied to the terminals of the battery. Depending on the state of charge (SoC), the cell may temporarily be lower after discharge than the applied voltage. After some time, however, it should level off.


During charge, the lead sulfate of the positive plate becomes lead dioxide. As the battery reaches full charge, the positive plate begins generating dioxide causing a sudden rise in voltage due to decreasing internal resistance. A constant voltage charge, therefore, allows detection of this voltage increase and thus control of the current charge amount.


The charging efficiency varies depending upon the state of charge of the battery, temperatures, and charging rates. The below graph illustrates the concept of the state of charge and charging efficiency.


An overview of new and current developments in state of charge (SOC) estimating methods for battery is given where the focus lies upon mathematical principles and practical implementations. As the battery SOC is an important parameter, which reflects the battery performance, so accurate estimation of SOC cannot only protect battery, prevent overcharge or discharge, and improve the battery life, but also let the application make rationally control strategies to achieve the purpose of saving energy. This paper gives a literature survey on the categories and mathematical methods of SOC estimation. Based on the assessment of SOC estimation methods, the future development direction of SOC estimation is proposed.


Rising crude oil prices and worldwide awareness of environmental issues have resulted in increased development of energy storage systems. The battery is one of the most attractive energy storage systems because of its high efficiency and low pollution [1]. There are several kinds of batteries currently being used in industry: lead-acid battery, Ni-MH battery, Ni-Cd battery, and Li-ion battery. The battery has the advantages of high working cell voltage, low pollution, low self-discharge rate, and high power density. Batteries are used commonly for portable utilities, hybrid electric vehicles, and industrial applications [2].


There is approximately a linear relationship between the SOC of the lead-acid battery and its open circuit voltage (OCV) given bywhere is the SOC of the battery at , is the battery terminal voltage when SOC = 0%, and is obtained from knowing the value of and at SOC = 100%. By (2), the estimation of the SOC is equivalent to the estimation of its OCV [8]. The OCV method based on the OCV of batteries is proportional to the SOC when they are disconnected from the loads for a period longer than two hours. However, such a long disconnection time may be too long to be implemented for battery [9].


Unlike the lead-acid battery, the Li-ion battery does not have a linear relationship between the OCV and SOC [10]. A typical relationship of Li-ion battery between SOC and OCV is shown in Figure 1 [11]. The OCV relationship with SOC was determined from applying a pulse load on the Li-ion battery, then allowing the battery to reach equilibrium [12].


Using real-time measurement road data to estimate the SOC of battery would normally be difficult or expensive to measure. In [32], application of the Kalman filter method is shown to provide verifiable estimations of SOC for the battery via the real-time state estimation.


A new SOC estimation method that combines direct measurement method with the battery EMF measurement during the equilibrium state and book-keeping estimation with Coulomb counting method during the discharge state has been developed and implemented in a real-time estimation system [37].


Any battery will lose capacity during cycling. In order to calculate SOC and remaining run-time (RRT) accurately and to improve the SOC estimation system capability to cope with the aging effect, a simple Qmax adaptation algorithm is introduced. In this algorithm the stable conditions of the charge state are exploited in order to adapt Qmax with the aging effect.


A battery charger, recharger, or simply charger,[1][2] is a device that stores energy in a battery by running an electric current through it. The charging protocol (how much voltage or current for how long, and what to do when charging is complete) depends on the size and type of the battery being charged. Some battery types have high tolerance for overcharging (i.e., continued charging after the battery has been fully charged) and can be recharged by connection to a constant voltage source or a constant current source, depending on battery type. Simple chargers of this type must be manually disconnected at the end of the charge cycle. Other battery types use a timer to cut off when charging should be complete. Other battery types cannot withstand over-charging, becoming damaged (reduced capacity, reduced lifetime), over heating or even exploding. The charger may have temperature or voltage sensing circuits and a microprocessor controller to safely adjust the charging current and voltage, determine the state of charge, and cut off at the end of charge. Chargers may elevate the output voltage proportionally with current to compensate for impedance in the wires.[3]


For example, for a battery with a capacity of 500 mAh, a discharge rate of 5000 mA (i.e., 5 A) corresponds to a C-rate of 10C, meaning that such a current can discharge 10 such batteries in one hour. Likewise, for the same battery a charge current of 250 mA corresponds to a C-rate of C/2, meaning that this current will increase the state of charge of this battery by 50% in one hour.[5]


All charging and discharging of batteries generates internal heat, and the amount of heat generated is roughly proportional to the current involved (a battery's current state of charge, condition / history, etc. are also factors). As some batteries reach their full charge, cooling may also be observed.[6] Battery cells which have been built to allow higher C-rates than usual must make provision for increased heating. But high C-ratings are attractive to end users because such batteries can be charged more quickly, and produce higher current output in use. High C-rates typically require the charger to carefully monitor battery parameters such as terminal voltage and temperature to prevent overcharging and so damage to the cells. Such high charging rates are possible only with some battery types. Others will be damaged or possibly overheat or catch fire. Some batteries may even explode.[citation needed] For example, an automobile SLI (starting, lighting, ignition) lead-acid battery carries several risks of explosion. A newer type of charger is known as a solid state charger. This overcomes the limitations of limitations of liquid batteries.


To accelerate the charging time and provide continuous charging, an intelligent charger attempts to detect the state of charge and condition of the battery and applies a 3-stage charging scheme. The following description assumes a sealed lead acid traction battery at 25 C. The first stage is referred to as "bulk absorption"; the charging current will be held high and constant and is limited by the capacity of the charger. When the voltage on the battery reaches its outgassing voltage (2.22 volts per cell) the charger switches to the second stage and the voltage is held constant (2.40 volts per cell). The delivered current will decline at the maintained voltage, and when the current reaches less than 0.005C the charger enters its third stage and the charger output will be held constant at 2.25 volts per cell. In the third stage, the charging current is very small 0.005C and at this voltage the battery can be maintained at full charge and compensate for self-discharge. 041b061a72


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